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Glossary of Terms

Agile – a project management approach that emphasizes flexibility, quick response to change, and regular delivery of value to customers. In Agile, projects are divided into short, iterative stages called sprints, during which the team works on delivering specific functionalities. Collaboration between team members and the client is crucial in Agile, as it allows the project to be adjusted to changing business and market requirements.

AI (Artificial Intelligence) – the ability of computer programs to perform tasks typically associated with human thinking and behavior, such as reasoning, learning, planning, and creativity. AI uses various technologies to achieve this goal, such as machine learning, natural language processing, and image recognition, which enable programs to learn, understand, and process information in a human-like way.

API (Application Programming Interface) – a set of tools and rules that allow different programs and web services to communicate and collaborate with each other. This enables the automation of many processes, such as information exchange between different applications, leading to faster operation and reduced risk of errors.

AR (Augmented Reality) – a technology that overlays virtual elements onto the real world using devices like smartphones or special glasses. Users can see additional information or objects that seemingly do not exist but are displayed in real-time on the device's screen.

Backend - the part of a computer system responsible for processing, storing, and providing data, as well as ensuring its security. The backend often consists of a server, a database, and an application or system managing data and business logic. It communicates with mobile applications through its API.

Beacon – a small, wireless device that allows for the localization and transmission of data to smartphones or tablets via Bluetooth.

Bluetooth – wireless communication between devices (e.g., smartphones, computers) at close range (several meters).

Case study (case analysis) – presentation of a specific business, technical, or user scenario that requires a solution, followed by a description of the steps taken to find and implement the solution. A case study may also include an analysis of the benefits and risks associated with the use of a particular solution and the results obtained after implementation.

CMS (Content Management System) – a system that makes it easy to create and update content on a website and mobile applications.

FaceID – a biometric function that allows you to unlock a device or confirm authorization through facial recognition.

Feature flags – a programming technique that involves temporarily disabling or enabling certain features of an application without the need to change the source code. This allows for easy and controlled deployment of new features or experimentation with them, minimizing the risk of failures and errors.

Fixed Price – a pricing model used in IT projects. It involves estimating the project cost upfront. The service provider is obligated to perform the work according to the schedule and scope in exchange for a predetermined amount.

GPU (graphics processing unit) – a graphics processor that performs calculations necessary for displaying images.

IoT (Internet of Things) – a network of "things" (physical objects) equipped with sensors, software, and other technologies to connect and exchange data with other devices via the Internet (e.g., through smartphones and mobile apps).

JIRA – a project management tool that allows project teams to create and manage tasks, report, plan, and monitor outcomes, as well as track project progress.

ML (Machine Learning) – a field of artificial intelligence that involves developing algorithms and methods that allow computers to learn from data without direct programming by humans.

MVP (Minimum Viable Product) – a product or service that contains key features and can be introduced to the market. It does not include additional features that are planned to be developed after the market launch of the MVP. It allows for the verification of user reception and minimizes the costs incurred.

MVVM (Model-View-ViewModel) – a design pattern where the Model represents the data and business logic of the application, the View is the user interface, and the ViewModel acts as an intermediary between them. This allows for the automatic update of the view when changes in the model occur. MVVM helps in separating the business logic from the presentation of the user interface and facilitates testing of the code.

Native mobile application – a mobile application designed and written for a specific operating system (Android or iOS) using low-level tools and technologies provided by the system manufacturer. The application is optimized for the platform, can use all available features and capabilities, operate in offline mode, and access tools such as the camera, Bluetooth, push notifications, or biometric authentication.

NFC (Near Field Communication) – a technology that allows for wireless and secure communication between two devices that are in close proximity (usually about 10 cm). It is most commonly used for contactless payments, but it can also be used for file transfer and application activation.

NLP (Natural Language Processing) – an area of artificial intelligence. It processes natural language using information technology and linguistics to analyze, generate, understand, and translate text or speech. It is applied to speech recognition, automatic translation, text analysis, speech understanding, text generation, etc.

NLU (Natural Language Understanding) – an area of artificial intelligence. It enables machines to understand and interpret the language we use every day. Thanks to NLU, machines can process instructions, respond to questions, understand user requests, and draw conclusions based on the processed text.

OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) - an international non-profit organization focused on improving the security of web applications. OWASP brings together security experts who collaboratively work on identifying and solving security issues associated with web applications.

OWASP MASVS (Mobile Application Security Verification Standard) - a standard for verifying the security of mobile applications developed by OWASP. It is a useful tool for developers, testers, and auditors who want to verify the security of mobile applications and improve their resilience to attacks. By using OWASP MASVS, a higher level of security can be provided to users, protecting the application from potential threats.

PoC (Proof of Concept) – a project or prototype that serves to prove that a certain idea or solution is technically feasible.

Push notifications – short messages sent to users that appear on the screen without the need to actively open the application. They can convey various types of information, such as updates, notifications of new messages, or promotional offers.

PWA (Progressive Web App) – a web application that offers some functionalities of native apps, such as the ability to use it offline and a responsive user interface. Due to the limitations of internet browsers and the lack of full access to the device, PWAs are not as functional or efficient as native mobile applications.

QA (Quality Assurance) – means ensuring quality throughout the entire software development process. As part of QA, software testing, product compliance evaluation, functionality, performance, security, and reliability verification are performed.

Refactoring – the process of modifying an application's source code to improve its quality and readability, without introducing changes to the application's functionality. It helps maintain the code in good condition and minimizes the risk of introducing errors during later changes in the application.

Research – the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to gain knowledge, understand phenomena, develop theories, or confirm hypotheses.

Revival – the revitalization of a project or product that was previously abandoned or had lesser popularity, but has been reimplemented, improved, and has gained popularity.

SCRUM - a project management methodology that uses the Agile approach, based on agility, flexibility, and continuous improvement. In SCRUM, the project is divided into short iterations called sprints, during which the team works on delivering specific functionalities. SCRUM involves regular meetings and strong cooperation between team members and the client, which allows for adaptation to changing requirements and continuous process improvement.

SDK (Software Development Kit) – a set of tools, libraries, and programming interfaces that help developers create mobile applications for specific platforms such as iOS or Android.

Server-driven UI – with this solution, the server decides what to display in a mobile application and how to display it. This allows the deployment of new features across all platforms by changing the backend, without releasing new versions of native applications.

SLA (Service Level Agreement) – an agreement between a service provider and a client, ensuring that services will be provided in accordance with the client's requirements, and the service provider has precisely defined quality and standard requirements to be met.

Slack – a platform for real-time communication. It facilitates easy exchange of information (text, files, links) among team members.

Software House – an IT company that specializes in the design, creation, and implementation of custom software for clients. Norbsoft is a software house.

Sprint – an element of the agile methodology, an iterative cycle that usually lasts from one to four weeks. It consists of planning, implementation, and review, aimed at ensuring that the project team delivers agreed value to the client effectively and efficiently.

Tokenization – the process of converting a given value into a digital value. For example, replacing sensitive information such as credit card numbers with randomly generated data known as tokens. Tokens are unique identifiers that are typically worthless in the context of a cyberattack or privacy breach because they do not directly contain any sensitive data.

TWA (Trusted Web Activity) – an extension of PWA (Progressive Web App), which allows the content of PWA to be run within mobile applications, enabling their publication in Google Play and Apple AppStore, and increasing the convenience of use. Thanks to TWA, PWA can use device functionalities such as access to files or system notifications.

T&M (Time & Material) – a billing model used in IT projects. Clients are presented with an hourly or daily rate for each team member working on the project. Clients pay for the actual work done and the time spent on its completion.

UI (User Interface) – this concept refers to the elements of the user interface that allow interaction with the product. The goal of UI is to provide an intuitive, easy-to-use interface.

UX (User Experience) – this concept relates to the user's impression associated with interacting with the product. The aim of UX is to provide the best possible user experience, taking into account their expectations and needs.

Waterfall – a traditional project management method where software creation consists of phases such as planning, designing, implementing, testing, and maintaining. Each stage is performed one after the other, and the process moves to the next only after the previous one is completed.

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